Excretory System

Disorders of the Urinary System

8.5     Urinary-tract infections are fairly common, especially in females. This is because the female’s urethra is much shorter than that of the male. This allows bacteria easier access to the bladder and ureters. It is important to treat urinary-tract infections early. Once an infection is well-established, it can travel up the urinary tract to the kidneys and cause a kidney infection. Acute or repeated kidney infections can cause permanent damage to the nephrons.

8.6     Kidney stones are more common in males than in females. They consist of hardened calcium salts, uric acid, and other by-products that collect inside the kidneys. Approximately 60 percent of kidney stones pass through the urethra and leave the body. If a stone becomes lodged in the ureter, it must be removed. Surgical removal was once the only option, but less invasive methods are now available. For example, fibre -optic laser surgery is used to break the stones into pieces that are small enough to pass through the urethra.

 How do People Control when They Urinate?

8.7     Two circular muscles at the base of the bladder control the flow of urine from the body. Adults have voluntary control of the outermost muscle, but young children do not. The bladder can hold up to 600 ml of urine. Stretch receptors in the wall of the bladder sense how full it is, and when it contains about 200 ml, a person usually feels the need to urinate. When the volume approaches 300 ml, the need to urinate becomes urgent.

Santokh Singh Parmar

Naturo-Food Therapist & Lifestyle Consultant

Mobile: +91(0) 9815922330

Websites: www.naturofoodtherapy.org & www.foodtherapy.org

Note: The above information and advice and indicative remedies are not a substitute for the advice, your doctor or naturo-food therapist may give you based on his/her knowledge of yourself.

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